Presentation Abstract

Abstract Number: 5411
Presentation Title: Combination of enzastaurin and HDAC inhibitors synergically induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells
Presentation Time: Wednesday, Apr 21, 2010, 8:00 AM -11:00 AM
Location: Exhibit Hall A-C, Poster Section 22
Poster Section: 22
Poster Board Number: 14
Author Block: Juraj Bodo1, Jan Sedlak2, Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski1, Eric D. Hsi1. 1Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; 2Cancer Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia
Abstract Body: Introduction: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are approved for use in the setting of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with modest benefit. Enzastaurin is an investigational PKCβ inhibitor that has growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects in both B and T-cell lymphoma. Specifically, enzastaurin-induced inhibition of PKC leads to rapid accumulation of β-catenin that triggers c-Jun dependent induction of p73, followed by apoptosis. We investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death of combination enzastaurin and low concentrations of HDACis in B-cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoma/leukemia cells.
Experimental design: Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and PARP cleavage. Phospho-GSK3β (S9), pS6, phospho-c-jun (S73) and β-catenin were analyzed by Western blot or quantum-dot immunoflourescence as measures of PKCβ inhibition. Cytotoxicity was determined by WST-1 proliferation assay and colony forming cell (CFC) assays.
Results: As expected, enzastaurin induced dephosphorylation of GSK3β and S6RP associated with increased β-catenin expression followed by phosphorylation of c-jun (S73) and PARP cleavage in SU-DHL-6 (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma line) cells. Treatment with low concentrations of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) showed slight or no changes in studied proteins. Combined enzastaurin/SAHA treatment resulted in strong synergistic apoptosis in two treated germinal center B-cell-like and two activated B-cell-like lymphoma cell lines, two T-cell lymphoma cell lines and four different primary lymphoma/leukemia samples. Similarly, combined enzastaurin/ valproic acid treatment induced synergistic apoptosis in SU-DHL-6 cell line, suggesting the synergy is generalizable to other HDACis. In comparison to the single agent treatment, combined enzastaurin/ SAHA treatment resulted in activation of proapoptotic MAPK, c-jun N-terminal kinase, further increase of phospho c-jun (S73) levels, increased FasL levels, and amplification of PARP cleavage. Quantitative immunofluorescence assay showed a more rapid increase of β-catenin levels with the combination than either agent alone. Furthermore, compared to the low dose SAHA treatment alone, hyperacetylation of histone H3 was detected in samples when Enzastaurin was added in combination with low dose SAHA, likely the consequence of displacement of HDAC by β-catenin. In addition, no change in CFC output in normal bone marrow exposed to this combination was observed.
Conclusion: Enzastaurin/ HDACi therapy can synergistically inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in lymphoid malignancy through increased biochemical effects attributed to each agent. These data support further investigation of addition of PKCβ inhibitors to HDACi in order to increase their anti-lymphoma effects.