Relationships between, and heritability of, mood characteristics and physical activity levels in young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
Saturday, Oct 13, 2012, 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM
*A. M. DETTMER
, D. KAY
, G. L. FAWCETT
, J. ROGERS
, J. D. HIGLEY
, N. D. RYAN
, J. L. CAMERON
Psychiatry, Univ. Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA;
Clin. and Hlth. Psychology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL;
Human Genome Sequencing Ctr. & Dept. of Mol. and Human Genet., Houston, TX;
Southwest Natl. Primate Res. Ctr., San Antonio, TX;
Psychology, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT;
Oregon Natl. Primate Res. Ctr. at Oregon Hlth. and Sci. Univ., Beaverton, OR
Adults suffering anxiety and depression often exhibit decreased physical activity, whereas mania is associated with increased physical activity. Much less is known about the relationship between mood and physical activity levels during development. To examine this relationship, we studied young rhesus monkeys (n=640) reared in outdoor corrals at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. We assessed infants (3-6 months) on three tests of childhood anxious behavior adapted for monkeys: the Free Play Test (mother present), Human Intruder and Novel Fruit Tests (mother absent). Physical activity was quantified in infancy from videotaped behavior when the infant was alone in an unfamiliar cage and at 2 and 3 years old when monkeys wore an omnidirectional accelerometer in a collar. Exploratory factor analysis reveals three behavioral characteristics that together explain 53.7% of observed trait variance: 1) reticence/willingness to explore a rewarding stimulus, 2) behavioral inhibition/surgency in a novel environment, and 3) impassivity/reactivity to a threatening stimulus. Spearman correlations were performed between activity and composite z-scores that were calculated from the behaviors comprising each factor. Activity during infancy was positively correlated with activity at years 2 (r
=0.123, p=0.03) and 3 (r
=0.302, p<0.001). Infants who were more reticent to explore a rewarding stimulus (Novel Fruit) were less physically active in infancy (r
=0.326, p<0.001), and at years 2 (r
=0.136, p=0.017) and 3 (r
=0.214, p=0.012). Infants who were more impassive to a threatening stimulus (Human Intruder) were also less physically active in infancy (r
=0.136, p=0.001) and at year 3 (r
=0.166, p=0.045). Preliminary assessment of additive genetic variance relative to phenotypic variance (heritability) (152≤n≤419) revealed significant heritability for impassivity/reactivity (h
=0.43, p<0.001) and for activity in infancy (h
=0.25, p=0.002) and at 2 years (h
=0.32, p=0.001). In contrast, physical activity was not related to behavioral inhibition/surgency during the Free Play Test (the only test in which the mother was present). There is lower but still significant heritability of z-scores for behavioral inhibition/surgency (h
=0.17, p=0.039). These findings show that monkeys reared in a naturalistic setting exhibit a spectrum of anxious behaviors that parallel those seen in clinical settings. Moreover, ours are the first findings in a large, normative population of rhesus monkeys to show significant relationships between, and heritability of, physical activity and specific anxious behaviors in early development.
NIH Grant MH62568
NIH Grant F32NS074574
NIH Grant T32NS07391
NIH Grant RR00163
[Authors]. [Abstract Title]. Program No. XXX.XX. 2012 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. New Orleans, LA: Society for Neuroscience, 2012. Online.
2012 Copyright by the Society for Neuroscience all rights reserved. Permission to republish any abstract or part of any abstract in any form must be obtained in writing by SfN office prior to publication.
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