Altered connectivity in default mode and cingulo-opercular networks in children with adhd
Sunday, Nov 10, 2013, 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM
++C.07.j. ADHD, SLI, dyslexia and other specific disorders of neurobehavior
*S. H. MOSTOFSKY
, M. NEBEL
, L. JACOBSON
, J. WEXLER
, B. S. CAFFO
, J. J. PEKAR
, A. D. BARBER
Neurology/Developmental Cognitive Neurol.,
Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins Univ. Sch. o, Baltimore, MD;
Johns Hopkins Sch. of Med., Baltimore, MD;
Kennedy Krieger Inst., Baltimore, MD;
Johns Hopkins Sch. of Publ. Hlth., Baltimore, MD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These behavioral impairments may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity with these networks was altered in ADHD. 51 ADHD and 51 typically-developing (TD) children (ages 8-12 years) were matched for age, gender, handedness, and verbal comprehension index. All children had a five-minute resting state scan. Preprocessing included slice time correction, motion correction, co-registration, segmentation, and normalization. Nuisance variables were removed from each voxel (cerebrospinal fluid and white matter using CompCor, global mean signal, and absolute and differential motion parameters). Functional images were spatially smoothed using a 6 mm FWHM filter and then temporally filtered (bandpass 0.01-0.1Hz). 6mm radius seeds were placed in six CON regions: bilateral dorsal anterior insula (DAI), bilateral supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and anterior cingulate cortex); and three DMN regions: medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and lateral parietal cortex (LP). Mean time-courses were extracted and full-brain connectivity maps were created for each seed. The five CON maps were averaged to make one mean CON map and the three DMN maps were averaged to make one DMN map for each subject. Second-level t-tests were then performed to examine differential connectivity between the two groups for the CON and DMN networks. Within the DMN, a number of regions were more connected in the ADHD group, including the MPFC, bilateral LP and PCC. The left orbitofrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were also more connected with the DMN in children with ADHD. Greater connectivity with the DMN in the TD group was found in a cerebellar region and in the precuneus/superior parietal cortex. Within the CON, greater connectivity in the ADHD group was found in bilateral DAI, SMG, putamen and postcentral gyri. On the left side there was greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and thalamus. While prior studies have found hypo-activation or hypo-connectivity within the DMN network in ADHD, the current study finds increased within-network connectivity for both the DMN and CON. In addition, children with ADHD showed altered connectivity between DMN and other brain regions. Atypical CON and DMN connectivity may contribute to ADHD-associated impairments in attentional and behavioral control in children.
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